One common method to determine heat flow in a well is to use a Bullard plot, which graphs thermal resistance (m$^2$K W$^{-1}$) against temperature. The gradient of this line is heat flow, and the uncertainty determined from the error of linear regression.
Thermal resistance is calculated by:
$$ R = \sum_{i=0}^{n} \left( \frac{\Delta z_i}{k_i} \right) $$
which is the cumulative summation of resistors down the length of a borehole. The uncertainty on $R$ should increase as the individual errors on $k$ accumulate.

Regions where surface temperature has increased since past glaciation events, such as Ireland, underestimate the heat output of the Earth unless palaeoclimate corrections are applied. We apply probabilistic techniques to quantify the uncertainty of …

The surface heat flow field in Australia has for many years been poorly constrained compared to continental regions elsewhere. 182 recent heat flow determinations and 66 new heat production measurements for Southeastern Australia significantly …

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